The Campbells of South Australia

The Campbells of South Australia

Campbell families have been connected with the history of Australia from the very start. Duncan Campbell, a Presbyterian Scot was hulk master in London and was involved with some of the convict transports to Port Jackson. Among the thousands of convicts transported to Australia were 240 with the name Campbell. The first one was Arthur Campbell in 1789. Ann Campbell was transported in 1791. Both went to New South Wales. The last Campbell to be transported was James Campbell in 1867 to Western Australia.

On 12 June 1798 a canny Scot by the name of Robert Campbell arrived on the Hunter in Sydney. His task was to establish a branch, for his family’s business in Calcutta, and trade with the penal colony. He was soon thriving and eventually became known as Merchant Campbell and ‘father of Australian commerce’. Campbell’s wharf in Sydney is named after him.

Another successful merchant was Charles Campbell, born on 14 January 1840 at Aberdeen. He left for the Victorian goldfields in 1858. His exploits must have met with more than the usual financial rewards as he was able to invest £3,300 in acid works at Yarraville in 1872. Ten years later he formed the Adelaide Chemical Works. When he died on 13 September 1905 he left an estate worth £223,000 in Victoria, £115,672 in New South Wales and £24,080 in South Australia.

He was not the only one attracted by the Victorian gold. Duncan Campbell left Argyllshire to try his luck too. His son John Samuel was born at Talbot in 1863 and educated at Clunes and Gawler. At the age of 14 John started working for Magarey & Company, millers of Port Pirie. He remained with them for 20 years after which he started out on his own account supplying Broken Hill companies with flux. Later he became part owner of a shipping company trading on the South Australian coast.

A Mr W.F. Campbell, M.P. was on the first Committee in 1831 to establish a Chartered Company which would settle in a proposed colony in Southern Australia. It was unsuccessful but three years later the South Australian Association was formed and it was successful.

Even before the first ship left Britain with migrants for the new colony of South Australia in 1836, the South Australian Church Committee was formed with the aim of assisting the colonists with the establishment of a church and school. One of its committee members was the Rev. A.M. Campbell who also made a personal donation of £5.5.0 for this worthwhile cause. Years later another Reverend, Dr I.F. Campbell would support Mary MacKillop, now Saint Mary of the Cross, in her years of struggle with Roman Catholic dignitaries.

The honour of being the first Campbell to arrive in South Australia probably goes to John and Catherine Campbell. They arrived in 1837. On 12 October 1838 Archibald Campbell arrived in South Australia on the Elizabeth from Swan River. On 16 October he was appointed Constable in the newly created South Australian Police Force. John Campbell arrived at Holdfast Bay as a cabin passenger on the Rajasthan on 16 November 1838 and also joined the Police Force on 14 December 1838. Mr and Mrs Campbell left Liverpool on the barque Fairfield and arrived at Port Adelaide on 4 May 1839.

In Scotland shoemaker Robert Campbell applied on 2 February 1839 for a free passage for himself, his wife and baby daughter. Six months later, 26 year-old shoemaker John Campbell applied for assistance as well to migrate with his 18 year-old wife. Several other shoemaking Campbells would later do the same with one of them, David, setting up business in Adelaide and others settling at One Tree Hill. There was certainly no shortage of shoemakers in South Australia. By February 1838 there were already 18 of them living in the young colony.

Alexander Campbell arrived in 1839 with his 69 year-old father Colin and 55 year-old mother Jane and three brothers. Within a short time they took up land at Willowie and later at Bangor where they established Glenorchy. During 1840 several Campbells arrived from Tasmania, among them Malcolm on 8 May on the Lady Emma from Launceston and 6 months later A. Campbell on the Minerva, also from Launceston. Later other Campbells would move from South Australia to Tasmania. Donald Campbell arrived on the 236 ton barque Margaret at Port Adelaide on 10 April 1852. Both South Australia and Tasmania have a town named Campbelltown as does Scotland.

On 1 August 1850 Charles James Fox Campbell and Norman Campbell were both appointed Justices of the Peace. On 5 March 1859 Charles, now aged 48, died at the North West Bend Station, River Murray. The South Australian Advertiser reported on 17 March 'We regret that it is our duty to announce the death of this old and much respected colonist. The deceased was on a visit at the station known as Campbell's Station on the North West Bend of the River Murray. About three weeks ago he received a severe cut in one of his hands from a broken bottle. The wound speedily assumed a dangerous aspect and when Dr Gosse left his patient on Saturday last, no hopes of recovery were entertained. Mr Campbell leaves a large circle of friends to mourn his loss'.

The Funeral Notice in the paper of 22 March stated that the funeral of this old and much respected colonist took place on Monday afternoon. 'It passed up King William Street at about half-past 3 o'clock, on its way from the residence of the Messrs Levi, Walkerville, to the West Terrace Cemetery. A large number of gentlemen, old colonists and personal friends of the deceased, formed the procession, which had a very solemn and imposing effect, as it wended its way slowly along. The procession consisted of a chastely mounted hearse, drawn by four horses, three mourning coaches, about twenty carriages, and other vehicles. Several horsemen, in mourning bands, likewise followed the deceased to his grave'.

Among some other Campbells who arrived early in South Australia were Euvidale S.N. Campbell, a former Major of the 90th Regiment Horse Guards. He subdivided part of section 202 in 1850 and called it Leasingham. A year later A. Campbell took up the New Telowie Run and D.J. and W. Campbell established the Morambroo Run near Hynam. During a trip north in 1857, John and Murdoch Campbell discovered Beda Creek, west of Lake Torrens.

Isabella Campbell born 1832

Hugh Campbell born 1832

Isabella Bogie Campbell born 1854

A year later, Hugh and Isabella Campbell migrated to South Australia with their children Isabella Bogie, born 25 December 1854 and James, born 25 January 1857. They would eventually have 12 children. Hugh’s younger brothers James, born 9 October 1837 in Inverness and William, born in 1845 in Fife, travelled with them on the same ship. They all left Liverpool on 28 March on the Utopia and arrived in Port Adelaide on 11 July 1858 and eventually settled at One Tree Hill.

The Utopia was no exception to other late arrivals from England in having made a long passage, which was accounted for by adverse weather. It started in the Irish Channel, where she beat about for 14 days without making any considerable progress. The parallel of the Cape was reached in 71 days, and from the Cape to Leeuwin a good run of 18 days was traversed. Since that period easterly weather retarded her progress, and for the last 18 days of the trip she was within three days sail of her port of destination. She was seen from the beach station on Thursday at midday, but did not reach the anchorage until Friday morning, when she was boarded. The Utopia would make several other trips to bring migrants from Ireland and Scotland to South Australia.

Little is known about Hugh’s younger brothers James, a shoemaker by trade and William, who came out with him on the Utopia. James was baptised on 15 October 1837. A James John Campbell later married Lucy Elizabeth Saunders. They had six children, twins Eva Anna and Emily Florence on 4 September 1869 at Streaky Bay, Lucy Alice on 25 March 1872 at Fowlers Bay, Josephine on 14 July 1876 and Lillian Rose on 24 July 1877, both at Streaky Bay. Their last child William James was born on 24 March 1882 at Elliston.

What made them settle on the West Coast is not known, although there were already a number of Campbells on Eyre Peninsula and the West Coast. William Campbell arrived in his own yacht and also settled at Streaky Bay in 1864. Here he operated as a storekeeper, carpenter and blacksmith and became postmaster in 1868. He and his wife Mary had five sons, the youngest, Edward Henry would later become publican at Fowlers Bay. James John died 8 August 1916 and his wife Lucy Elizabeth on 23 June 1933 aged 91. Both of them, and their granddaughter Lucy Annie, daughter of Everard and Hannah Cotton and sister of Grace, are buried at the North Road Cemetery. Grace died on 20 June 1941 aged 46. James John’s burial was a public one, meaning that there were insufficient means to cover the cost. However someone at some time did pay and erected a headstone on their grave.

Hugh’s brother William died 23 April 1902. Even less is known about his older brother David, born 2 April 1831, baptised 26 September 1831 and sister Margaret, born 27 July 1835. It looks like both stayed in Scotland.

One of the best known migrant ships of that time, the City of Adelaide, left London on 29 May 1874 and brought 300 new settlers, among them Dr William Campbell, his widowed mother and two sisters. Dr Campbell would later be on the committee of the South Australian Institute for the Blind, Deaf and Dumb. There was also Dr Allan Campbell. Both practiced at 34 King William Street.

Dr Allan Campbell had arrived from Glasgow, where he had grown up, in 1867. Operating from North Terrace he became prominently involved with institutions that were of benefit to sick children. He became a member of the Council of Education and the Central Board of Health. He resigned from both positions during September 1878. He became good friends with George Goyder and would become his physician. He provided Goyder with a medical certificate to back up his leave of absence for 9 months on full pay. Campbell became a Member of the Legislative Council and activily supported federation. He died on 30 October 1898

Many other Campbells arrived during these early years, and later. Soon they could be found not only around Adelaide but all over the young colony, from Naracoorte and Mount Gambier in the south to Colton and Streaky Bay on Eyre Peninsula, in the Northern Flinders Ranges and along the Birdsville, Oodnadatta and Strzelecki tracks in the north and beyond. In Millicent Alexander Campbell had a problem with his daughter who apparently was overly keen to get married. He had this notice published in the South Australian Government Gazette in an effort to delay her aspirations as long as possible.

In 1856 Ann Campbell was working at Robe. William Harvey Campbell ran the Foundry Hotel in Adelaide in 1859 and had his licence renewed on 13 March 1860. David Campbell was born at Robe on 16 September 1866 and would eventually become editor of The Millicent Times. During 1867 Angus Campbell was employed as a stone waller at Bundaleer Station.

Several Campbells lived in and around Uleybury and Truro from the 1850s. Susannah Campbell married William Moore of Truro on 30 March 1859. Dorcas, wife of Donald Campbell died there on 31 October 1873 while Duncan Campbell's wife Jessie and children all died on 23 February 1876. They were buried at Truro as well.

Police Trooper Campbell was stationed at Sliding Rock during 1876 and 1877. Edward Campbell was working in the Innamincka area in 1879, William Campbell bought Innamincka Station in 1881 and in 1887 presented E.T. Smith, Mayor of Adelaide, with a limb from the tree under which Burke was buried in 1862.

Sergeant W. Campbell was stationed at Beltana from 1886 until 1887. During these years John Campbell was listed as a baker in Caltowie. Angus Campbell and his wife Sarah McPherson had already settled and had a son, Donald Gordon, at Caltowie on 29 December 1874.

A much later arrival was Arthur Lang Campbell, born in New South Wales in 1889. He came to South Australia where he was appointed Professor of Law at the University of Adelaide in 1925. He was an active member of cultural, sporting and political organisations and a broadcaster and film censor during World War II. W.H. Campbell was Clerk of the District Council of Booyoolie in 1913 and Town Clerk of Laura in 1914. He also was secretary for the Booyoolie Agricultural Society for some time.

Not all Campbells were successful in their adopted home. Several families experienced real hardships brought about by drought, crop failure, sickness or early death of the breadwinner. Admittance records of the Adelaide Hospital list several Campbells who were hospitalised for extended periods. James Campbell who had arrived in 1858 remained in hospital for more than five months suffering from conjunctivitis during 1873 and 1874. Donald Campbell of Mannanarie, a labourer born in Adelaide in 1852 had to stay for seven weeks.

Another James Campbell, a little boy living at the Destitute Asylum was applied for by Josiah Hunt of Tothill's Creek in October 1862. Hunt was highly recommended, and promised to educate James as his own, and not to put him to work until a proper time. Upon those conditions the Board complied with the request. Henry Campbell fell on hard times too and had nowhere to go. Old and sick he died on 18 October 1881, aged 75, while an inmate of the Destitute Asylum.

Alexander Campbell, cattle dealer of Mt Remarkable was declared insolvent in November 1861. Philip Charles John Campbell of Walkerville had to convey and assign all his real and personal estate and effects to Walter John Phillipson for the benefit of his creditors on 24 February 1876, as required by the Insolvent Act. Duncan Campbell, carrier of Penola, had to assign and convey his estate to George Magnus Nobes of Mount Gambier for the same reason on 20 October 1877.

Unfortunately not all Campbells behaved in an acceptable way either. On 21 January 1879 a James Campbell was charged with stealing two watches from the Dalrymple Hotel at Stansbury three days previously. He was sentenced to nine months' imprisonment with hard labour. Three years later another, or maybe the same, James was charged in Adelaide with vagrancy but discharged with a caution after promising to obtain work.

When farming blocks became available in the mid-north of South Australia during the 1870s several Campbells from the south, especially Angle Vale and One Tree Hill, took up leases or bought land outright. D. Campbell, farmer of One Tree Hill bought section 115 of 228 acres in the Hundred of Caltowie in February 1873. Another buyer was Archibald, third son of John Campbell who established Peak Farm at Tarcowie. Unfortunately he was unable to see it reach its full potential as he died on 21 January 1879, aged only 33 years. William Horne Campbell bought land at Booyoolie but on 4 January 1877 applied to surrender his agreement and obtain a new one.

Hugh Campbell, boot maker and postmaster of Angle Vale also went to the mid-north. Born on the Isle of Skye in Scotland on 1 August 1832, he was married by Rev. George McCulloch to Isabella Davidson on 15 November 1853 at Thornton, Fifeshire, Scotland. Hugh was the son of Angus and Elisabeth (aka Betty/Betsy) Campbell, nee Maxwell. Isabella was born at Gallatown, Scotland on 24 February 1834 and baptised on 16 March that same year. She was the daughter of James Davidson and Isabella Davidson, nee Bogie, both of Dysart Parish, Fife. Her grandfathers were David Davidson and David Bogie.

Upon arrival in South Australia Hugh went into business for some time with his uncle John Campbell who was already established at One Tree Hill. Maybe the application from John, dated 31 July 1839 was his uncle’s, and perhaps that is what drew Hugh to South Australia.

Shortly after their arrival in Port Adelaide little James died from the results of falling into a fire. In August 1859 Hugh and Isabella had another daughter, Betsy at One Tree Hill followed by a son, Angus on 24 May 1862. Within nine months they had another son William who was born on 7 February 1863. On 30 January 1865 daughter Caroline Mary was born. Nearly three years later they had another daughter Margaret born on 11 November 1867. She was child number seven and the last one born at One Tree Hill.

Most of the early Campbells settled on the land to take up farming or grazing, while others would first practice their original trades before also moving on to farming. Several began in the Adelaide Hills with later arrivals slowly spreading out, mostly northwards as land became available.

During the mid-1860s there were several Campbells living at Tea Tree Gully. There were G. Campbell on section 2163 and James on section 1589. Both were still there after 1871. At One Tree Hill and around Tenafeate, named after the local creek and homestead, were Angus, John and his son James. All were farming at Tenafeate until 1870. James’ wife, Eliza Maria Williams, after marrying him on 17 March 1864 gave birth to a daughter, Minie Catherine on 22 January 1865. Sadly she died five days later. On 6 July 1866 they had another daughter, Laura Caroline Williams born at One Tree Hill. On 8 November 1868 they again had a daughter, Edith Maria.

In September 1870 James and his wife decided to have a try at the nearby Barossa Goldfield. With their two daughters they were soon living in a tent among the many holes which had been dug left right and centre. As some of these holes were abandoned and had filled up with water an accident was bound to happen. It did on 12 October 1870 when Edith Maria fell into one and drowned. The family still remained for several months and on 26 March 1871 Anna Maria was born. In the end the venture must have been rewarding financially as James was able to acquire the London Hotel in Flinders Street, Adelaide. At the time of 65 years old widow Eliza's death on 31 March 1910, and her daughter Laura's on 6 December 1919, the hotel was still in the family.

Betsy Campbell born 1859

Margaret Campbell born 1867

Sometime after Margaret’s birth in 1867, the parents discovered that something was wrong with little Margaret. Before long they realised that she was both deaf and mute, a condition affecting several of the different Campbell families. Naturally both parents wanted the best for their little girl. By the time she was 6 years old and living in Angle Vale, Hugh became instrumental in, and worked hard for, a special school for such children.

This resulted in the future establishment of the South Australian Institute for the Blind, Deaf and Dumb and the Townsend House at Brighton. Hugh’s letter to the steering committee was tabled at the first meeting and resulted in Margaret being among the first group of eight children to be admitted, as was Frederick (Friedrich) Wilhelm Hermann Juncken from Tanunda. Since their enrolment several Campbell and Juncken children have passed through the school, the last one in 1955.

When Hugh and his family moved to Angle Vale he still had his shoe and boot making business but also became the local postmaster after having bought lot 11 on section 4140 at Angle Vale on 23 August 1870. While at Angle Vale, still more children were born. Jemima Ellen on 3 November 1869, Hugh David on 14 December 1871, Florence Lavinia on 21 November 1873 and James White Davidson on 28 December 1875.

Florence Campbell born 1873

They remained at Angle Vale until 1877. Hugh must have been considering taking up land for some time as several other Campbells had already done. He took up land at Hornsdale in the mid-north. Once again there were several Campbells already in that neighbourhood. An A.M. Campbell was government overseer at Jamestown and an H. Campbell was farming at Laura.

Hugh had bought lot 187 of 268 acres at £1 per acre in the Hundred of Tarcowie at ten per cent deposit in December 1875. However something went wrong somewhere as he either did not make the payments or did not fulfill the conditions. A new agreement was made in February 1885 with the condition that he make regular payments of £10.11.4 each year. This he did and the last payment was made in May 1903 with the Title issued in August 1903.

Hugh and Isabella’s first child, Isabella Bogie, was also the first to be married. On 28 July 1877 she married Caltowie farmer Joseph Baynes, born around 1850 at Cambridgeshire, England. He came to South Australia with his parents on the Dolphin in 1858. He farmed at Mount Lock, Hornsdale and in 1901 moved to Mannanarie where they remained until 1914. They finally retired to Jamestown where he died on 16 January 1929, aged 78. His wife Isabella Bogie died on 13 January 1939. They had five children.

The second daughter of Hugh and Isabella, Betsy, married Thomas Stacey, 27 on 8 August 1878 in the Wesleyan Methodist Schoolroom at Jamestown. After the wedding they travelled back to Myponga where Thomas lived and had his farm. They didn't wait long to start a family. Their first child, George Angas, was born on 17 May 1879 at Myponga. All other children were born there too except William Alfred born on 2 June 1882 at nearby Yankalilla. They remained living in the same house at Myponga for the next 50 years. They too had a large family, ten in all, who were able to celebrate their parents’ golden wedding anniversary. Thomas died at Myponga, aged 81, on 9 June 1930 and Betsy, who was living at Yankalilla by then, died at Prospect on 15 December 1955, aged 96.

Hugh and Isabella's third son William, born 7 February 1863, worked on his father’s farm and was well known in athletic circles and excelled in walking. During the 1890s he moved to Western Australia when the gold rushes attracted many other South Australians. For 26 years he was employed as a blacksmith by the Midland Railway. He never married and in later life returned to South Australia where he died at Jamestown on 14 January 1927.

William Campbell born 1863

Hugh David Campbell born 1871

Fourth son Hugh David married 23 years-old Alice Catherine Cecilia Casey, daughter of John Joseph Casey, at the Methodist Parsonage, Solomontown on 2 April 1908. They were to have nine children. Lester David was born at Blythe on 8 September 1908. Their next three children were born at Gunnedah, NSW. They were Adelaide Rose on 11 December 1909, Isabel Florence on 23 July 1911 and Hughena Jean on 10 December 1913. Hugh McKenzie was born at Quirindi on 31 October 1918, followed by Alice Margaret Levina at Scone on 22 October 1918. Their remaining three children were all born at Quirindi again. Robert Angus in 1920 was followed by twins Bruce William and Hector James on 26 February 1923.

Caroline Campbell born 1865

The 1890s were busy and expensive times with several of Hugh and Isabella’s children marrying and the birth of grandchildren. Caroline Mary, born 30 January 1865, had a son by John Campbell on 29 March 1887 and named him Hugh Davidson. Sadly he died 5 weeks later on 6 May at Adelaide. Three years later, on 2 April 1890, Caroline married Joseph Flavel, born in 1864, and lived in the Tarcowie Hills. They had seven children.

During the mid-1890s they moved to Wilmington where their daughter Charlotte Alice later married local baker John Edwards. She would work in the bakery for more than 50 years. In 1915 Caroline and Joseph moved to Cobdogla area, 6km from Barmera, which was proclaimed a town on 1 May 1919. Caroline died on 24 March 1926 and Joseph in 1945.

The other daughters of Hugh and Isabella were Margaret who married shoemaker Friedrich Wilhelm Hermann Juncken of Tanunda on 17 April 1895 at the Primitive Methodist Church, Yongala. They had known each other since their days as little children at the Institute for the Blind, Deaf and Dumb. Though both were deaf and mute they were a very capable couple. They remained childless. Margaret, while living at Jamestown, died at Eastwood on 9 May 1945 aged 78. Her husband William, as he was then known, had passed away before her.

Both families would have a long association with the Institute. A. Campbell was on the Board of Management in 1883; Ernest Julius Juncken was enrolled as a student in 1884 as was Herbert G. Campbell in 1910. J. Juncken and M.N. Campbell were Collectors for the Institute in 1912 and Miss P.J. Campbell became a teacher at the school in 1957.

Jemima and Matthew

Angus Campbell born 1862

James White Davidson
Campbell born 1875

Daughter Jemima Ellen married Matthew MacCallum on 29 March 1893 at Yongala. They had two daughters, Ellen Isabel Florence on 9 April 1894 and Elizabeth Annie May on 23 June 1899. Jemima died at Jamestown on 1 September 1957, aged 87. Florence Lavinia married William Henry Smith of Tarcowie at the Wesleyan Church Appila on 30 January 1899. They had at least two children, James Place, born on 29 July 1902 at Appila and Hughey Maxwell at Tarcowie on 21 March 1904.

James and Grace
on their wedding day 1909

JWD Campbell
at Bowra Station Bore

Their last child, James White Davidson, attended school at Hornsdale and at 23 went droving and shearing around NSW. He was married on 28 April 1909 by Rev R. Campbell to Grace Maxwell Wilson. Grace was born on 5 April 1886 at Lilydale, Tasmania, second daughter of James and Grace Wilson. After their wedding they lived at Mount Russell, New South Wales, where they had three children, Grace Isabella Maxwell, Helen Margaret Heather and Jessie Jemima Janet. At Bowra Station near Cunnamulla Queensland they had two more children, James Hugh McKenzie and Jean Elizabeth Wilson. James senior spent 23 years in South Australia, 19 in New South Wales, 12 in Queensland and 28 years in Victoria.

The last of Hugh and Isabella Campbell's grandchildren

James managed the 30,000 acre Bowra property and then moved to Shoreham Victoria in 1929. Bowra Station is now famous for its birdlife and draws many national and international visitors. Grace died 25 September 1948 at her daughter’s house in NSW and James on 7 June 1958 at Melbourne. They are buried in a double grave in the Presbyterian section of the Dromana Cemetery, Victoria.

As their younger children were growing up and the older ones married, Hugh and Isabella were kept busy on their farm. Isabella became involved with the Salvation Army while Hugh thought nothing of walking across the ranges to take Sunday School at the Primitive Methodist Chapel at Mannanarie. In 1902 Hugh successfully petitioned the government to sink a well near his property which he leased from them in 1906.

While Hugh still owned lot 187 he did lease it to Thomas and William Albert Swearse, farmers of Hornsdale, on 1 March 1910 for a term of three years. When this expired he sold it to them on 7 March 1913. However in March 1911 he had bought sections 316 and 317W, a total of 640 acres, from James Eglinton but sold them again on 11 April 1912 to John Edward Pick.

Hugh and Isabella’s fourth child Angus, born 24 May 1862 at One Tree hill, was married by the Rev. J. Allen on 10 February 1885 to Mary Ann Scharber. She was the second daughter of Joseph Scharber of North Belalie. Mary Ann was born on 9 October 1864 at Sevenhill where her father Joseph, a watchmaker by trade, worked in the vineyards for the Jesuit Brothers. Joseph and his wife had migrated from Austria. Mary Ann had no formal education and could not read or write. Later their daughter Adelaide Fanny Lyal, born 23 December 1897, would read and write her letters.

Five months after their wedding, son Hugh Angus was born at Caltowie on 24 July 1885, followed by twins Charles and Mary Ann on 26 June 1887. Sadly Charles lived for only 23 hours and died on 27 June. Ellen Elizabeth was born on 9 September 1888 followed by Ruby Florence on 9 April 1890. Like his father Hugh, Angus too had his problems coping with recurring droughts and low wheat prices. In an effort to make ends meet he tried his luck on the Teetulpa gold diggings in the late 1880s.

He was not the first, nor the last among the Campbells who showed an interest in gold mining. As far back as 1852 A.M. Campbell handed over 3.5 ounces of gold to Alexander Tolmer for the first gold transport from Victoria to his wife in Adelaide. During April 1870 Police Trooper Campbell was on duty at the Barossa Goldfields. Another Campbell ran a butcher store in partnership at the same diggings in 1870.

R.D. Campbell had been to California to try his luck and later went to Teetulpa where Captain W.T. Campbell was managing the Mannahill Gold Mining Company in 1886. On 11 August 1886 Captain Campbell registered four quartz claims on the Hope Junction Reef in his name and those of J.B., G. and A. Campbell. That same year J.C. Campbell was a director of the Westward Ho Gold Mining Company.

On 1 September 1887 C.P. Campbell transferred his 24th share in the Victorian Gold Reef and James E.G. Campbell wrote to the Warden of Goldfields in Adelaide on 25 January 1888 applying for a Miners' Right. In 1895 W.A. Campbell tried his luck at Willunga and C. Campbell discovered gold at Farina and Edward Campbell at the Avondale Reef. That same year in Sydney, the Rev. Joseph Campbell published his book Gold & how to find it; or, one solution of the Unemployment problem.

Angus leased section 123 from the government in 1891 at Mannanarie Hills where he lived with his wife Mary Ann and young family. They lived in a small four-roomed house without such conveniences as water or electricity. Soon after son William Davidson was born on 31 March 1892 at Hornsdale where Angus’ parents lived. The next child born was Isabella on 4 November 1893. Five more children were born after her, Colin James on 3 November 1895, Adelaide Fanny Lyal on 23 December 1897, Allan Roy on 5 November 1899, Ronald Ian on 16 June 1902 and child number 12 Robert McKenzie on 21 September 1905.

They were, and remained, a close and happy family. Angus played the accordion and at night recited poetry for his children. Later he bought a piano as well. On 1 August 1901 Angus became the owner of lot 204W which he had bought from Matthew Clark of Mannanarie. On 1 July 1902 Angus took up lease number 6182 of 237 acres in sections 123 and 359 at Mannanarie for an annual rent of £11.7.0 The conditions included the fencing of the land before the end of the fifth year and residing on it for at least nine months of the year. Failing to do so would result in forfeiture. Five years later he transferred the lease to Matthew MacCallum.

When Angus started he had no farming experience but he was a fast learner and soon had a few cows to provide fresh milk and horses for the farm work. During and after the harvest his boys would help while the girls operated the winnower. When more space was needed he built another room on the house for the boys. When attending school his children would walk nearly five kilometres and back every day. Adelaide's teacher, for most of her schooldays, was Alfred George who was assisted by monitor (teacher’s assistant) young Nita Malone. Piano lessons were provided for Adelaide and her sister Isabella by neighbour John Harvie who was a music teacher. Adelaide did well at school and would later, at the age of 85, write her autobiography, Joy and Sorrow Interwoven.

In 1905, the family moved to Mannanarie Flat where Angus now rented a farm, sections 206, 207 and 219S, a total of 622 acres from Mrs Mary Jane Ninnes for seven years from 1 March 1905. Her husband Thomas had died on 3 March 1901, aged 72 and Mary was leaving for Broken Hill. During these seven years, and for many years after, the family income was supported by a hawker’s round previously operated by Mrs Ninnes but now by Angus’ wife Mary Ann and daughter Ellen Elizabeth. Every week they would set out to visit their customers, often travelling as far away as Petersburg.

The Ninnes' sections leased by Angus.

Up to this time Angus had leased his farms but on 16 September 1907 he, and William Saint bought Section 72 of 1679 acres in the Hundred of Price for £252. They sold it again four years later. On 4 March 1912 Hugh bought in his own name Section 79 of 207 acres from John Reidy. Later that year he also bought a farm of 640 acres, at £8 per acre, and an additional paddock adjoining it of 140 acres. He and his family had worked hard to make this possible but Angus was not able to develop it. He soon experienced major health problems and was admitted to the Jamestown Hospital where he was looked after by Dr William Blair Aitken, a highly qualified surgeon from Scotland.

Dr Aitken came to Jamestown on 1 May 1889 and was followed by his sister Jane a year later to do his housekeeping for more than 30 years. Aitken took not only an interest in his patients but also in local community affairs. He was President of the local Racing Club, Councillor and even Mayor. Whatever medical skills he had, there was nothing he could do for Angus. After an operation it still seemed hopeless and Angus returned home where he died of cancer on 20 March 1915 at the age of 53. The farm's land title was transferred to his wife Mary Ann on 28 May 1915.

The farm was now managed by Mary Ann, her daughters and sons who were still at home. Sons William Davidson and Hugh were in New South Wales at that time and Colin James was fighting on the Western Front. Within two years Mary Ann and daughter Adelaide were able to visit Hugh and his family in NSW on their farm Glengyle. When Colin came home from the war he bought a farm with the help of his mother and the RSL, settled down and married Eva Lambert on 26 July 1921.

Meanwhile, Mary Ann kept charge and looked not only after her family but also friends and neighbours. During her time at Mannanarie she held non-denominational church meetings at her home for 28 years. She was also midwife to seventy mothers with Doctor Aitken more than happy with her skills and devotion. Mary Ann died on 26 March 1939 at Mannanarie, aged 75. She was buried at Yongala, as was her husband Angus. After her death children Robert McKenzie and Ellen Elizabeth became the owners of the farm. Robert and his brother Allan Roy had previously owned two sections, 79 and 85, in the nearby Hundred of Black Rock Plain. They had bought them from Grace Robinson in 1926 but sold them in 1932.

Angus and Mary Ann’s first child Hugh Angus was born on 24 July 1885 at North Caltowie. After his schooling he joined the Mannanarie Literary Society and later the Light Horse. His own horse was a present from his uncle Lou Scharber, owner of Mount Riddoch Station in the McDonnell Ranges.

When his father Angus bought him a farm on the Peel River Estate near Tamworth, where already some relatives were living, Hugh Angus departed on the train leaving his mother and girlfriend Laura in tears. However he was back in 1913 when he married Laura Edith Victoria Bennett on 3 February 1913 at her parents’ house in Tarcowie. After the wedding they went back to his farm near Tamworth. They had four children. The last one, Hugh Bennett, was born six weeks after the death of his father in 1919.

After five years of struggling to keep the farm going and bringing up her young children, Laura sold it and moved back to lot 7 in Tarcowie, South Australia. Soon her home became a favourite gathering place for friends and family. After finishing school at Tarcowie, her son Hugh Bennett worked as an agricultural labourer. When WWII broke out he joined the Army but later transferred to the RAAF and served on Bathurst Island. When demobilised he set up house in Torrensville where he lived with his mother Laura.

Hugh Bennett now learned a trade and became a stonemason and bricklayer and took great pride in his work. Later he turned to wood and not only restored but also reproduced Victorian and Edwardian furniture. In March 1948 he married Evelyn Brice, daughter of Stan and Millicent Thomas of Seacliff. They would have four children. While living at Woodville Gardens they took in boarders to supplement his wages. Their first boarder was a recently arrived migrant from Holland.

When Hugh Bennett finally secured a job at the Belair National Park their financial position improved a great deal, especially with extra overtime on weekends. One of his better known jobs was the rebuilding of the Joseph Fisher Pavilion which eventually led to him becoming Curator of Old Government House. After his retirement he and his wife were able to visit Scotland where his Great Grandparents, boot maker Hugh and his wife Isabella, had decided to migrate to South Australia in 1858.

It had not been easy for Hugh and Isabella to establish themselves but after years of moving from one place to another and much hard work they had achieved owning their own farm and helped their children to do the same. Later they would amass even more, several of them doing really well. Their grandchildren too were successful. When they were finally able to retire, Hugh bought lot 82 in Bute Street, Jamestown from Elsie May Staker on 26 May 1910. They now enjoyed their time as retirees and the visits from children and grandchildren.

Isabella died 16 July 1918 at Jamestown. After her death Hugh transferred the property to his daughter Margaret, wife of Friedrich Wilhelm Hermann Juncken, boot maker of Jamestown, on 25 April 1919. Hugh died 26 November 1923 at Jamestown. Both are buried at the Appila Cemetery. At the time of Hugh’s death 3 sons and 6 daughters were still alive.

After her father's death, Margaret sold most of the property to William Joseph Baynes on 24 March 1923 and was issued with a new title for the remainder. When Margaret died on 10 May 1945 the land was transferred to Alfred John Symonds as requested in her will dated 22 May 1935. Six months later Alfred transferred it to Jemima Ellen MacCallum. After Jemima died on 1 September 1957, this property was left to Alfred John Symonds again as requested in her will of 15 April 1927. Both Ellen and Adelaide Campbell and their brother Robert McKenzie Campbell were still living at Mannanarie in 1956.

Several Campbells of the Mannanarie, Hornsdale and surrounding area were buried at the Jamestown Cemetery. Among them Adelaide 29-7-1975, Allan Roy 4-6-1977, Angus 31-10-1908, Archibald 21-3-1879, Archibald 13-7-1882, Catherine 5-9-1882, Julia E.M. 3-10-1882, Mary 22-3-1884, Peter 7-12-1914, Philip A. 8-3-1916, Phillip Alexander 7-10-1946, Rita Maud 26-2-2010 and William 14-1-1927.

More Campbells are buried at Yongala. They are Adelaide Fanny Lyal on 17-11-1992, Angus on 22-3-1915, Ellen Elizabeth on 11-4-1979, Irene Blanche on 2-10-1999, Mary Ann on 27-3-1939, Robert McKenzie on 23-5-1994 and Ronald Ian on 16-12-1977. Still more Campbells are buried at White Hut Gaelic Cemetery, Hamilton, Bullaparinga, Colton, Gladstone, Laura, Macclesfield, Mount Barker, Tothill Creek, Yacka, Sevenhill, Spalding, St John's Mt Pleasant and Farina.

At Farina John Campbell, station cook of Wadlarkania, died on 26 February 1883. He was only 51 years old. Four days old Catherine was burried in 1892 followed a year later by two days old James. Other Campbell children, and adults, found their last resting place at Port Lincoln, Crystal Brook, Cummins and Elliston. Lieutenant Francis Norman Campbell, only son of Captain Sir John Norman Campbell is buried at Scott Creek.

The contributions made by the Campbells in South Australia are recognised by the naming of several geographical features after them. Lake Campbell was named for Murdoch Campbell. Campbelltown was set out by Charles James Fox Campbell who named it after himself. The Hundred of Campbell, proclaimed on 6 December 1888 was named for Dr Allan Campbell MLC from Glasgow who was responsible for the creation of the Adelaide Children’s Hospital and a training school for nurses. Born in 1836 he came to Adelaide in 1867. He was appointed district health officer and shortly after Adelaide became the first city in Australia to undertake a deep-drainage sewer system.

There are Campbell Avenues in Crafers and Rosewater, Campbell Drives in Murray Bridge, Para Hills and Reynella, Campbell Roads in Elizabeth Down, Paradise and Parkside, Campbell Streets in Ferryden Park, Oaklands Park, Laura and Woodville and a Campbell Court at Greenwith. There is a Campbell Creek near the Talisker mine at Cape Jervis, named for Alexander Campbell and his family. In the same area are the Campbell Creek mine and Campbell's Hill. Campbell Park, was a school near Meningie and the Campbell Range, north of Bundaleer, was discovered and named by E.J. Eyre after R. Campbell of Sydney.

There is also a Campbell Road in Streaky Bay named for the Campbells of that town, and Campbell Bald Hill Range in the northern Flinders Ranges for John M. Campbell who arrived in 1839 on the Superb. Last but not least there is Campbell Point on Lake Eyre, named for Sir Donald Campbell. He was not a settler but broke the world land speed record in his Bluebird-Proteus CN7 on the salt lake on 17 July 1964 reaching a speed of 403.1 mph.

Campbells buried at Jamestown

Campbells buried at Yongala

With special thanks to Betty Meader for all the photographs,
help and information.


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